ivanov_p (ivanov_p) wrote,
ivanov_p
ivanov_p

Маленький мозг

С каждым годом все сильнее уверенность, что мозжечок - чуть не "параллельный мозг". Считается устаревшей теория, что мозжечок задействован только в координации и контроле движений. Находят все больше влияния на когнитивные функции. Мозжечок связан с языковыми процессами, с негативными эмоциями, с социальным интеллектом. И это, насколько можно понять, только первые исследования, до конца там еще очень далеко.
Странный маленький мозг с демонстративно-похожими "полушариями" весьма сложно устроен, связан со многими эмоциональными и когнитивными процессами. в исследованиях на больных удается отыскать следы все более сложных функций, в которых задействован мозжечок.
ЗанятноНачалась эта очередная революция в 90-х, в связи с появлением новых технологий, сейчас эти исследования всё множатся. Как это увязать с функционированием "большого мозга" - пока, вроде бы, не слишком понятно. авторы используют очень осторжные выражения, вроде участия в контроле тех и тех функций.


The cerebellar contribution to cognitive operations and emotional behavior is critically dependent upon the existence of plausible anatomic substrates. This paper explores these anatomic substrates, namely, the incorporation of the associative and paralimbic cerebral areas into the cerebrocerebellar circuitry in nonhuman primates. Using the novel information that has emerged concerning this system, proposed rules are derived and specific hypotheses offered concerning cerebellar function and the relationship between cerebellum and nonmotor behavior, as follow. (1) The associative and paralimbic incorporation into the cerebrocerebellar circuit is the anatomic underpinning of the cerebellar contribution to cognition and emotion. (2) There is topographic organization of cognitive and behavioral functions within the cerebellum. The archicerebellum, vermis, and fastigial nucleus are principally concerned with affective and autonomic regulation and emotionally relevant memory. The cerebellar hemispheres and dentate nucleus are concerned with executive, visual-spatial, language, and other mnemonic functions. (3) The convergence of inputs from multiple associative cerebral regions to common areas within the cerebellum facilitates cerebellar regulation of supramodal functions. (4) The cerebellar contribution to cognition is one of modulation rather than generation. Dysmetria of (or ataxic) thought and emotion are the clinical manifestations of a cerebellar lesion in the cognitive domain. (5) The cerebellum performs the same computations for associative and paralimbic functions as it does for the sensorimotor system. These proposed rules and the general and specific hypotheses offered in this paper are testable using functional neuroimaging techniques. Neuroanatomy and functional neuroimaging may thus be mutually advantageous in predicting and explaining new concepts of cerebellar function.
Human Brain Mapping 4174-198(1996) 6 From Movement to Thought: Anatomic Substrates of the Cerebellar Contribution to Cognitive Processing Jeremy D. Schmahmann

Cerebellar activation by language tasks in functional imaging experiments was initially regarded as surprising, but subsequent PET and functional MRI studies show that multiple cognitive domains are associated with cerebellar activation. Further, these studies are in agreement with anatomical and clinical observations. Sensorimotor tasks activate primary (anterior lobe) and secondary sensorimotor regions. Cognitive paradigms preferentially activate different and, sometimes, discretely localized regions of the cerebellar posterior lobes.
The recognition that the cerebellum is involved in multiple domains of cognitive function raises many questions. Two of the most pressing issues are first, precisely
with which functions is the cerebellum involved? Second, are these cognitive functions in some way related to the role of the cerebellum in motor control?
...Further studies of the cerebellar role in cognition and emotion that are carefully designed and performed will have clinical relevance for cerebellar patients with impairments in mental flexibility, multitasking, visual-spatial organization, linguistic processing and mood. A hypothesis that may serve to organize observations is that the cerebellar role is constant in all domains—sensorimotor and otherwise—as its histological uniformity would imply. Is there indeed a ‘universal cerebellar transform’ (perhaps automatization, cerebellum as an oscillation dampher optimizing performance according to context) applied to a number of behaviours by different cerebellar areas interconnected via highly arranged anatomic pathways with brain regions that subserve different functions (the dysmetria of thought hypothesis, Schmahmann, 2004)?
Cognition, emotion and the cerebellum. JD Schmahmann, D Caplan Brain (2006), 129, 288–292

Patients with cerebellar damage often present with the cerebellar motor syndrome of dysmetria, dysarthria and ataxia, yet cerebellar lesions can also result in the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, including executive, visual-spatial, and linguistic impairments, and affective dysregulation. We have hypothesized that there is topographic organization in the human cerebellum such that the anterior lobe and lobule VIII contain the representation of the sensorimotor cerebellum; lobules VI and VII of the posterior lobe comprise the cognitive cerebellum; and the posterior vermis is the anatomical substrate of the limbic cerebellum. Here we analyze anatomical, functional neuroimaging, and clinical data to test this hypothesis. We find converging lines of evidence supporting regional organization of motor, cognitive, and limbic behaviors in the cerebellum. The cerebellar motor syndrome results when lesions involve the anterior lobe and parts of lobule VI, interrupting cerebellar communication with cerebral and spinal motor systems. Cognitive impairments occur when posterior lobe lesions affect lobules VI and VII (including Crus I, Crus II, and lobule VIIB), disrupting cerebellar modulation of cognitive loops with cerebral association cortices. Neuropsychiatric disorders manifest when vermis lesions deprive cerebrocerebellar limbic loops of cerebellar input. We consider this functional topography to be a consequence of the differential arrangement of connections of the cerebellum with the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral hemispheres, reflecting cerebellar incorporation into the distributed neural circuits subserving movement, cognition, and emotion. These observations provide testable hypotheses for future investigations.
...The results of investigations across different disciplines in neuroscience indicate that there is a level of organization in the cerebellum such that sensorimotor control is topographically separate from cognitive and emotional regulation. This new understanding of the cerebellum represents a major departure from conventional wisdom. Given the available evidence, we conclude that the anterior lobe and parts of medial lobule VI, together with lobule VIII of the posterior lobe and the interpositus nuclei constitute the sensorimotor cerebellum. Lobule VII and parts of lobule VI, which together with the ventral part of the dentate nucleus has expanded massively in the human, constitute the anatomical substrate of the cognitive cerebellum. The limbic cerebellum appears to have an anatomical signature in the fastigial nucleus and the cerebellar vermis, particularly the posterior vermis. Little is known of the possible cognitive role of lobule IX, although early fcMRI data provide some insights into its potential incorporation into the default mode network (Habas et al., 2009). Lobule X remains an essential node in the vestibular system. This functional heterogeneity, determined by functional imaging, physiological/behavioral studies, and clinical observations, is matched by the intricate connectional heterogeneity between different cerebellar regions and the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebral cortex. Further identification of the precise arrangement within the cerebellum of the multiple different aspects of cognitive and emotional processing is the focus of ongoing investigations.
This wider role of the cerebellum in cognition, emotion, social intelligence and mental health may be viewed within the context of the anatomical substrates that constitute the distributed neural circuits subserving all domains of neurological function. The demonstration across modalities that the cerebellum is incorporated into the neural circuits governing many behaviors, and not only motor control, begs the question as to what it is the cerebellum contributes to these behaviors. This important question is discussed elsewhere (see Schmahmann, 1997; Schmahmann and Pandya, 2008), but the question itself is predicated on the focus of the present report, namely, the recognition that there are indeed distinct cerebrocerebellar loops linked with motor, cognitive, and emotion circuits, and that this anatomical arrangement leads to organization within the cerebellum that is functionally and clinically relevant.
Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing
Catherine J. Stoodley and Jeremy D. Schmahmann Cortex. 2010 Jul–Aug; 46(7): 831–844.


Recent studies have implicated the cerebellum as part of a circuitry that is necessary to modulate higher order and behaviorally relevant information in emotional domains. However, little is known about the relationship between the cerebellum and emotional processing. This study examined cerebellar function specifically in the processing of negative emotions. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed to detect selective changes in middle cerebral artery flow velocity during emotional stimulation in patients affected by focal or degenerative cerebellar lesions and in matched healthy subjects. Changes in flow velocity during non-emotional (motor and cognitive tasks) and emotional (relaxing and negative stimuli) conditions were recorded. In the present study, we found that during negative emotional task, the hemodynamic pattern of the cerebellar patients was significantly different to that of controls. Indeed, whereas relaxing stimuli did not elicit an increase in mean flow velocity in any group, negative stimuli increased the mean flow velocity in the right compared with left middle cerebral artery only in the control group. The patterns by which mean flow velocity increased during the motor and cognitive tasks were similar within patients and controls. These findings support that the cerebellum is part of a network that gives meaning to external stimuli, and this particular involvement in processing negative emotional stimuli corroborates earlier phylogenetic hypotheses, for which the cerebellum is part of an older circuit in which negative emotions are crucial for survival and prepare the organism for rapid defense.
...The present study confirm the hypothesis that the cerebellum participates in elaborating negative emotions [10] and support earlier proposals, according to which the cerebellum belongs to a widespread network that determines the meaning of external stimuli by mediating facilitatory cortical processes during the processing of emotional information [12, 33]. These data are consistent with studies that have implicated the cerebellum as a part of an older circuit in which negative emotions, such as anger and sadness, are crucial for survival and prepare the organism for rapid defense [34].
Inability to Process Negative Emotions in Cerebellar Damage: a Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonographic Study
Michela Lupo, Elio Troisi, Francesca R. Chiricozzi, Silvia Clausi, Marco Molinari & Maria Leggio The Cerebellum volume 14, pages663–669(2015)


Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponential growth of knowledge on the topic. It is timely to review the available data and to critically evaluate the current status of the role of the cerebellum in emotion and related domains. The main aim of this article is to present an overview of current facts and ongoing debates relating to clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings on the role of the cerebellum in key aspects of emotion. Experts in the field of cerebellar research discuss the range of cerebellar contributions to emotion in nine topics. Topics include the role of the cerebellum in perception and recognition, forwarding and encoding of emotional information, and the experience and regulation of emotional states in relation to motor, cognitive, and social behaviors. In addition, perspectives including cerebellar involvement in emotional learning, pain, emotional aspects of speech, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the cerebellum in mood disorders are briefly discussed. Results of this consensus paper illustrate how theory and empirical research have converged to produce a composite picture of brain topography, physiology, and function that establishes the role of the cerebellum in many aspects of emotional processing.
Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Emotion
M. Adamaszek, F. D’Agata, R. Ferrucci, C. Habas, S. Keulen, K. C. Kirkby, M. Leggio, P. Mariën, M. Molinari, E. Moulton, L. Orsi, F. Van Overwalle, C. Papadelis, A. Priori, B. Sacchetti, D. J. Schutter, C. Styliadis & J. Verhoeven
The Cerebellum volume 16, pages552–576(2017)
Subscribe

  • Анатомия человеческих сообществ - книга о сознании

    В книге нет ни интересных фактов, ни доказательных рассуждений - нет ничего. Весь объем - произвольные допущения и невнятные рассуждения в пользу…

  • Генеалогия человечества

    Книга о палеогенетике, восстановление истории генетическими методами. Важные моменты: революция примерно с 2010 года, непрерывные открытия,…

  • Неидущая модернизация

    Автор рассказывает об ответах на вопрос - отчего же в России не идет модернизация. Один из ответов - в XV в. подгадили, и так по сю пору встать не…

  • Post a new comment

    Error

    Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal

    default userpic
  • 3 comments