ivanov_p (ivanov_p) wrote,


"I shall try to develop this idea more precisely in later sections. But first I want to show how a different example suggests the same view of unification.
In several places, Darwin claims that his conclusion that species evolve through natural selection should be accepted because of its explanatory power, that ".. .the doctrine must sink or swim according as it groups and explains phenomena" (F.Darwin 1887; vol. 2, p. 155, quoted in Hull 1974, p. 292). Yet, as he often laments, he is unable to provide any complete derivation of any biological phenomenon—our ignorance of the appropriate facts and regularities is "profound." How, then, can he contend that the primary virtue of the new theory is its explanatory power?

The answer lies in the fact that Darwin's evolutionary theory promises to unify a host of biological phenomena (C. Darwin 1964, pp. 243-44). The eventual unification would consist in derivations of descriptions of these phenomena which would instantiate a common pattern. When Darwin expounds his doctrine what he offers us is the pattern. Instead of detailed explanations of the presence of some particular trait in some particular species, Darwin presents two "imaginary examples" (C. Darwin 1964, pp. 90-96) and a diagram, which shows, in a general way, the evolution of species represented by schematic letters (1964, pp. 116-26). In doing so, he exhibits a pattern of argument, which, he maintains, can be instantiated, in principle, by a complete and rigorous derivation of descriptions of the characteristics of any current species. The derivation would employ the principle of natural selection—as well as premises describing ancestral forms and the nature of their environment and the (unknown) laws of variation and inheritance. In place of detailed evolutionary stories, Darwin offers explanation-sketches. By showing how a particular characteristic would be advantageous to a particular species, he indicates an explanation of the emergence of that characteristic in the species, suggesting the outline of an argument instantiating the general pattern.

From this perspective, much of Darwin's argumentation in the Origin (and in other works) becomes readily comprehensible. Darwin attempts to show how his pattern can be applied to a host of biological phenomena. He claims that, by using arguments which instantiate the pattern, we can account for analogous variations in kindred species, for the greater variability of specific (as opposed to generic) characteristics, for the facts about geographical distribution, and so forth. But he is also required to resist challenges that the pattern cannot be applied in some cases, that
premises for arguments instantiating the pattern will not be forthcoming. So, for example, Darwin must show how evolutionary stories, fashioned after his pattern, can be told to account for the emergence of complex organs. In both aspects of his argument, whether he is responding to those who would limit the application of his pattern or whether he is campaigning for its use within a realm of biological phenomena, Darwin has the same goal. He aims to show that his theory should be accepted because it unifies and explains."

Explanatory Unification
Philip Kitcher

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